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Introduction Knowledge Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. Newton's " Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy " is classified in the s as a book of physics; he used the term " natural philosophy " because it used to encompass disciplines that later became associated with sciences such as astronomymedicine and physics.
Metaphysical philosophy "logic" was the study of existencecausation, Godlogicforms and other abstract objects "meta ta physika" lit: Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology.
Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory including aesthetics, ethics, political philosophy, etc. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others.
Philosophical progress Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality".
A broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations. Socrates was a very influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom.
The Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Platowho founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle founding the Peripatetic schoolwho were both extremely influential in Western tradition.
Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics with competing theories such as atomism and monismcosmologythe nature of the well-lived life eudaimoniathe possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason logos.
With the rise of the Roman empireGreek philosophy was also increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy 5th — 16th century is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the rise of Christianity and hence reflects Judeo-Christian theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought.
Problems such as the existence and nature of Godthe nature of faith and reason, metaphysics, the problem of evil were discussed in this period. Some key Medieval thinkers include St.
Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to Theology ancilla theologiae and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. This period saw the development of Scholasticisma text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts.
The Renaissance period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust Humanism. The 20th century saw the split between Analytic philosophy and Continental philosophyas well as philosophical trends such as PhenomenologyExistentialismLogical PositivismPragmatism and the Linguistic turn.
Middle Eastern philosophy See also: Islamic philosophy and Middle Eastern philosophy The regions of the fertile CrescentIran and Arabia are home to the earliest known philosophical Wisdom literature and is today mostly dominated by Islamic culture.
Early wisdom literature from the fertile crescent was a genre which sought to instruct people on ethical action, practical living and virtue through stories and proverbs. In Ancient Egyptthese texts were known as sebayt 'teachings' and they are central to our understandings of Ancient Egyptian philosophy.
Babylonian astronomy also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks. Jewish philosophy and Christian philosophy are religio-philosophical traditions that developed both in the Middle East and in Europe, which both share certain early Judaic texts mainly the Tanakh and monotheistic beliefs.
Later Jewish philosophy came under strong Western intellectual influences and includes the works of Moses Mendelssohn who ushered in the Haskalah the Jewish EnlightenmentJewish existentialism and Reform Judaism.
Pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy begins with the work of Zoroasterone of the first promoters of monotheism and of the dualism between good and evil. This dualistic cosmogony influenced later Iranian developments such as ManichaeismMazdakismand Zurvanism.
After the Muslim conquestsEarly Islamic philosophy developed the Greek philosophical traditions in new innovative directions.CREW is an equal opportunity employer who values diversity in our workplace and in our work. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, age, protected veteran or disabled status, or genetic information.
The Code of Ethics has been produced by the College of Policing in its role as the professional body for policing.
It sets and defines the exemplary standards of behaviour for everyone who works in policing. The Code of Ethics is the written guide to the principles that every member of the policing profession of England and Wales is expected to uphold and the standards of behaviour they are expected to meet.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the United Kingdom, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of promoting the education and employment of members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Historically and internationally, support for affirmative action has sought. Consideration for Ethics and Diversity Proposal Essay Sample There are some ethical and diversity considerations, which have emerged in the HRM department. These are important for the strategic HRM planning process and this need to be addressed effectively.
business ethics. Strong financial results and a solid safety record were hallmarks of our company performance in These successes were achieved through the demonstration of The Chevron Way behavior and a commitment to The Chevron Way values – diversity and inclusion, high performance, integrity and trust, partnership and protecting people and the environment.