Introduction Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data. Note that your research problem determines the type of design you should use, not the other way around! Research Design in Social Research.
It could show how an infection could cause chronic fatigue syndrome, and then seemingly disappear. It focuses on the herpesviruses. Most humans carry several of these herpesviruses in latent form unless some stressor or biological event allows them to become reactivated.
The glial cells perk up remarkably in the presence of viruses, releasing all manner of pro-inflammatory and neuroexcitatory compounds proinflammatory cytokines [IL-1B, IL-6, TNF-a], glutamate, prostaglandins, nitric oxide and free radicals. All they need to do is tweak the vagus nerve and let it and the brain the do the rest.
The Key Component — Glial Cells The glial cells that surround and protect the vagus nerve are the key. At its most extreme allodyniathe nervous system can interpret even the slightest touch as eliciting pain.
That model of pain production has been solidly documented. Herpesvirus infections of the trigeminal nerve cause shingles. Do herpesvirus infections of the vagus nerve cause chronic fatigue syndrome?
What if the vagus nerve receptors were…ceaselessly bombarded with these cytokines? The symptoms of sickness behavior would be severe and intractable. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI may be able to detect viral lesions in central nervous system tissues. The severely ill should be given a prominent place in future studies.
Glial cell inhibitors have a good safety profile, have been helpful at curbing neuropathic pain and are not used much in chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. If VanElzakker is right then Ibudilast, a drug in clinical trials now for another disorder, is a possibility.
Ibudilast can also prevent viral activation of the microglia. Other general microglial inhibitors exist minocyline, pentoxyfilline, propentfylline but have undesirable side effects.
Antivirals Stopping glial cell activation may be easier than getting at the viruses themselves. Herpesviruses living in the sensory ganglia may be protected from antiviral drugs and antibodies. One new herpesvirus drug may be coming on the market soon, however.
Alternately, viruses other than the herpesviruses could be infecting the vagus nerve. Behavioral Therapy VanElzakker also notes that while behavioral therapies are not curative and may only apply to a subset of patients, they can help moderate symptoms and improve quality of life in some.
Conclusion The VNIT may be able to explain more puzzling aspects of chronic fatigue syndrome than any other. Next up we talk with Dr.Apr 17, · As laptops become smaller and more ubiquitous, and with the advent of tablets, the idea of taking notes by hand just seems old-fashioned to many students today.
Typing your notes is faster. I thought democracy in Chile was safe. Now I see America falling into the same trap. Second, a focus on practices (in the plural) avoids the mistaken impression that there is one distinctive approach common to all science—a single “scientific method”—or that uncertainty is a universal attribute of science.
The purpose of conducting research is to "fill in the gaps" of our knowledge about a particular field or subject, to identify a new problem, or to "test" a new solution or . When Ariel Dorfman co-wrote a book finding colonialist intent in the actions of a well-loved cartoon character, it got burned in Chile’s streets and earned him death threats.
Background paper for WHO workshop Intellectual Property Rights and Vaccines in Developing countries Geneva 19thth April Christopher Garrison.