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Zen school of Buddhism emphasizes meditation as the way to awareness of ultimate reality, an important practice of Buddhism from its origin in India and one found in other Indian schools, such as Yogachara.
Chan, which was… Origins and nature Compiled by the Chinese Buddhist monk Daoyun inRecords of the Transmission of the Lamp Chingde chongdeng lu offers an authoritative introduction to the origins and nature of Zen Buddhism. The work describes the Zen school as consisting of the authentic Buddhism practiced by monks and nuns who belong to a large religious family with five main branches, each branch of which demonstrates its legitimacy by performing Confucian -style ancestor rites for its spiritual ancestors or patriarchs.
The genealogical tree of this spiritual lineage begins with the seven buddhas, consisting of six mythological Buddhas of previous eons as well as Siddhartha Gautama, or Shakyamuni, the historical Buddha of the current age. The spiritual awakening and wisdom realized by these buddhas then was transmitted from master to disciple across 28 generations of semi-historical or mythological Buddhist teachers in Indiaconcluding with Bodhidharmathe monk who supposedly introduced true Buddhism to China in the 5th century.
This true Buddhism held that its practitioners could achieve a sudden awakening to spiritual truth, which they could not accomplish by a mere reading of Buddhist scriptures.
As Bodhidharma asserted in a verse attributed to him, A special transmission outside the scriptures, not relying on words or letters; pointing directly to the human mind, seeing true nature is becoming a Buddha.
It also provides the context of belief for various Zen rituals, such as funeral services performed by Zen priests and ancestral memorial rites for the families of laypeople who patronize the temples.
The Zen ethos that people in each new generation can and must attain spiritual awakening does Essays on bushido imply any rejection of the usual forms of Buddhist spiritual cultivation, such as the study of scriptures, the performance of good deeds, and the practice of rites and ceremonies, image worshipand ritualized forms of meditation.
Zen teachers typically assert rather that all of these practices must be performed correctly as authentic expressions of awakening, as exemplified by previous generations of Zen teachers. For this reason, the Records of the Transmission of the Lamp attributes the development of the standard format and liturgy of the Chinese Buddhist monastic institution to early Zen patriarchs, even though there is no historical evidence to support this claim.
Beginning at the time of the Song dynasty —Chinese monks composed strict regulations to govern behaviour at all publicly recognized Buddhist monasteries. In fact, however, the monks largely codified traditional Buddhist priestly norms of behaviour, and, at least in China, the rules were applied to residents of all authorized monasteries, whether affiliated with the Zen school or not.
Zen monks and nuns typically study Buddhist scriptures, Chinese classics, poetics, and Zen literature.
Included in the Records of the Transmission of the Lamp and in other hagiographic compendia, the public cases are likened to legal precedents that are designed to guide the followers of Zen.
Historical development China Although Zen Buddhism in China is traditionally dated to the 5th century, it actually first came to prominence in the early 8th century, when Wuhou —who seized power from the ruling Tang dynasty — to become empress of the short-lived Zhou dynasty —patronized Zen teachers as her court priests.
After Empress Wuhou died and the Tang dynasty was restored to power, rival sects of Zen appeared whose members claimed to be more legitimate and more orthodox than the Zen teachers who had been associated with the discredited empress. These sectarian rivalries continued until the Song dynastywhen a more inclusive form of Zen became associated with almost all of the official state-sponsored Buddhist monasteries.
During the reign of the Song, Zen mythology, Zen literature, and Zen forms of Buddhist spiritual cultivation underwent important growth. Since that time, Zen teachings have skillfully combined the seemingly opposing elements of mythology and history, iconoclasm and pious worship, freedom and strict monastic disciplineand sudden awakening Sanskrit: During the Song dynasty the study of public cases became very sophisticated, as Zen monks arranged them into various categories, wrote verse commentaries on them, and advocated new techniques for meditating on their key words.
Commentaries such as The Blue Cliff Record c. Mumon kan remain basic textbooks for Zen students to the present day. The public-case literature validates the sense of liberation and freedom felt by those experiencing spiritual awakening while, at the same time, placing the expression of those impulses under the supervision of well-disciplined senior monks.
For this reason, Zen texts frequently assert that genuine awakening cannot be acquired through individual study alone but must be realized through the guidance of an authentic Zen teacher. The Five Mountain Japanese: Gozan Zen temples, which were sponsored by the Japanese imperial family and military rulers, housed many monks who had visited China and had mastered the latest trends of Chinese learning.
Monks from these temples were selected to lead trade missions to China, to administer governmental estates, and to teach neo-Confucianisma form of Confucianism developed under the Song dynasty that combined cultivation of the self with concerns for social ethics and metaphysics.
Apart from the elite Five Mountain institutions, Japanese Zen monks and nuns founded many monasteries and temples in the rural countryside. Unlike their urban counterparts, monks and nuns in rural Zen monasteries devoted more energy to religious matters than to Chinese arts and learning.
Rural Zen monks helped to popularize many Buddhist rituals now common in Japan, such as prayer rites for worldly benefits, conferment of precept lineages on lay people, funerals, ancestral memorials, and exorcisms.
In this new political environmentZen monks and other religious leaders taught a form of conventional morality Japanese: As a result of these developments, the social and religious distinctions between Zen practice and Confucianism became blurred.
When the Ming dynasty — in China began to collapse, many Chinese Zen monks sought refuge in Japan. Their arrival caused Japanese Zen monks to question whether their Japanese teachers or the new Chinese arrivals had more faithfully maintained the traditions of the ancient buddhas and patriarchs.
The resultant search for authentic Zen roots prompted the development of sectarianism, not just between Japanese and Chinese Zen leaders but also within the existing Japanese Zen community.
Eventually sectarian rivalry led to the emergence of three separate Japanese Zen lineages: HuanboRinzai Chinese: Ignoring their similarities, each lineage exaggerated its distinctive features.
Modern developments During the first half of the 20th century, D. Suzuki —a Japanese Buddhist scholar and thinker, wrote numerous essays and books in English to introduce Zen ideals to Western audiences.
Suzuki was born just after Japan began to adopt Western technology in an effort to catch up with Europe and America. He was strongly influenced by 19th-century Japanese Buddhist reformers who sought to cast off what they saw as the feudal social structures of the Tokugawa period and who advocated a more modern vision of Buddhism that could compete successfully with Christianity.Through his Kagekiyo, a Noh Play, playwright Martin Burke describes events that reflect the Japanese Samurai Bushido spirit especially through the character called Kagekiyo.
[tags: Japan Bushido Samurai] Free Essays words ( pages) The Samurai and the Bushido Code Essay - The samurai were élite warriors in Japan during the ’s to the early ’s.
Fifth century Japan saw conflicts with Korea and China, but Japan had a very untrained army, with a clumsy Calvary, and poor infantry men (Blumberg 1). The Bushido is the code of law or edict that all Samurais must uphold. It means, “Way of the Warrior” and is the code of conduct that the Samurai class must follow.
When Samurais first appeared in Japan, they were referred to as knights and the bushi, were known to be the warriors. The Aikido FAQ is a resource for Aikido information.
Any question you might have about Aikido will be answered here. Musui: A Despicable Samurai. Custom Musui: A Despicable Samurai Essay Writing Service || Musui: A Despicable Samurai Essay samples, help Musui’s Story is an extraordinary autobiography of a samurai named Katsu Kokichi who lived during the last decades of Tokugawa period of Japan.
Der Sufismus hat in Ägypten eine jahrhundertelange Tradition. Nun fördert die Regierung die Mystiker, um den Islamismus zu schwächen. Manche fürchten, dass die Essenz der Strömung darüber verlorengeht - aber der Sufi-Trend bringt auch noch andere merkwürdige Phänomene hervor.