In Mary married airman Raymond Baxter who left to serve in England, returning to Lowell in Her daughter Judy was born September Mary told Judy that Jack Kerouac was her father. Daughter Cheryl bornbut Mary and Raymond divorced in
However, this theoretical organization is translated into reality with a system that contains individuals: General conditions are very low, especially in low-income countries: In these microcosms members have relations, there are roles and values and there is a specific social stratification; due to the mentioned difficult conditions, in the most part of cases these communities present distorted relations among members with high rates of violence Flynn, and exclusion.
Moreover, all these problems are further exacerbated by a growing trend toward an increase of the general prison population Walmsley, and a high rate of recidivism with individuals released that commit again criminal acts and run into a second or third incarceration.
Taking into account these points, it is simply to argue that in such a kind of context the respect of inmates as persons could be difficult and any regards to individual human rights becomes complicated to carry out. Obviously, in the provision to get over the mentioned difficulties a new model approach to cope with inmates and probationers is required and new strategies have to be undertaken.
In deed, a correct public policy should be articulated twofold: Finally, financial problems and lack of funds experienced by many prisons should be solved by using low-cost and efficient solutions. Thus, the purpose of the article is to improve our understanding of how participation in organized sport activities might give social and educational effects on inmates and probationers.
To the purpose, there are many authors who refer in their work to the role of sport for achieving educational and social goals Patriksson, and there is a long established theoretical tradition in this respect; taking our stand on this theoretical framework, it is possible to support proves in favor of the use of sport in prison and the potential efficacy of a sport-based project.
Therefore, in the aim to reinforce the mentioned theoretical framework, we collected observational data and we undertook a specific documentary research about two case studies, meaningful programmes that use sport as a psychosocial tool to deal with inmates.
Sport can be considered as a viable method of promoting good health; particularly, regular physical activity reduces anxiety and stress, increases self-esteem, helps to control weight and has a positive impact on other health risks World Health Organisation,Emily,American College of Sports Medicine, Generally speaking, inmates have few opportunities to practice sport regularly; they can be considered as a population presenting a high risk of hypokinetic diseases such as heart diseases, obesity, hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes.
Due to the incarceration, movement and occasions to practice sport are very limited with a consequent impossibility for inmates to enjoy the good effects of physical activities: Therefore, we can assist to a huge number of health problems and, consequently, to a reduction of quality of life in prison and to a parallel increase in the cost of health assistance.
The negative effects of custody on health can be reduced to a minimum with the principle that time spent in custody can be used positively to aid the prevention of disease and to promote health World Health Organization,Scottish Prison Service, Indeed, a moderate participation in physical activity acts positively on the general health of sedentary population even whether there is a low level of physical involvement Coalter, The experience of prison should help inmates to maintain and improve their health, mental and social situation Coyle, and sport based programmes are cost-effective way to tackle health problems and foster a general well-being: Therefore, due to the difficult conditions that inmates experience, it seems necessary to help them in dealing with daily problems for instance: In addition to the discussed non-medical function, sport presents other two relevant features for the well-being of those who are imprisoned.
Firstly, playing sport and taking part in physical activity offers a unique occasion to relax and fight against boredom and this results in a positive effect for inmates due to its reported links to depression, distractibility and loneliness Coalter, Secondly, taking part in sports activities enables inmates to express their needs movement and their rights to take part in educational and cultural activities.
From this perspective, sports activities can have a double effects: The social and educational value of sport has been especially researched for its effect on children, youth and local community in general Donnelly, Darnell, Coakley, Sport involvement provides good opportunities to learn particular social skills, such as tolerance and respect for other Svoboda, and it can contribute to enhance social inclusion.
Considerable evidence shows that sports participants are less likely than non-participants to engage in delinquent behaviors Donnelly,Segrave, Therefore, sports participation might reduce the amount of unstructured time - with a consequent reduction of possibilities to have anti-social behaviors Ewing, Seefeld, Tempie, - and it might enhance the number of interactions and level of inclusion.
In this regard, it is vital to stress that there are a series of dimensions bounded with the concept of social inclusion: Thus, dealing with social inclusion requires a multidimensional approach that positive effects the four mentioned dimensions and, as we discuss above, it can be argued that sport activities can be part of the required multidimensional approach especially in prison context.
On an opposite view, there are authors that criticize the ability of sport to develop social competences. There is evidence showing a negative effect of sport involvement on the social development of individuals.
Beggfor instance, measuring self-reported delinquent showed that males and females aged between 15 and 18 with moderate to high sporting activities were likely to delinquent than those with low levels.
Furthermore, in a general sense, quantifying definitely the positive or the negative effect of sport is made difficulty by the vague classifications of anti-social behaviors and the complexities of the relationship between sport involvement and social development.
Lower levels of delinquency, in fact, may be because of the people involved are self-selecting and more likely to offend less Collins et al.
Instead, about inmates, several studies report strange behaviors and difficulties to take part in sports activities Gras, and this can result in an inefficient effect of sport involvement.
Furthermore, adherence to formal rules and regulations, competitive situations and cooperation for achieving specific goals might be rejected by inmates with a consequent reduced effect of sport involvement. Thus, without a great deal of emphasis it can be concluded that sport programmes alone will not impact directly on reducing antisocial behaviors.
Indeed, participation in sport alone does not result in the development of social and emotional characteristics Ewing, Seefeld, Tempie, Finally, only a mix among participation, motivation and reflection on activities can be hoped to determine meaningful results Trulson,Ewing, Seefeld, Tempie, By mitigating the considerable consensus on the value of sport and its effect on communities and individuals development CCES,we want to deeper explore the potential effects that a sport based programmes can have on inmates and probationers.
Whether well organized and structured, sport can be an asset with diverse social outcomes in regarding several specific moments. We have to distinguish three different phases in which sport can be used: Prevention happens before the prison and it refers to an attempt to reduce the number of crimes and, consequently, the number of incarcerations.Oct 27, · Houston Texans owner Bob McNair apologized on Friday for a remark he made last week about “inmates running the prison” if N.F.L.
owners allowed players to . Mar 01, · Intramural sports teams, flag football, basketball, softball & soccer, with inmate referees, are available in most federal prisons. They are organized into leagues, with schedules and champions. The Following User Says Thank You to fbopnomore For This Useful Post.
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“A football pitch, on a big clearing immediately to the right of the road, was particularly welcome. Green turf, the requisite white goalposts, the chalked lines of the field of play — it was all there, inviting, fresh, pristine, in perfect order.
|Football teams for the prison inmates Essay Example for Free||Prison history[ edit ] Over its years of operation, the penitentiary received more than 13, inmates, with a maximum population of a little over Two hundred and fifteen of the inmates were women.|
|Do Prisons have football teams?! - Prison Talk||Rather, this is a so-called "blawg," a law-related personal non-profit pro bono publico First-Amendment protected "web log" or "blog," one with a subjective, idiosyncratic, and eccentric sociological and social-psychological slant that focuses not on the latest judicial decisions of supposed great legal importance but on a the institution of judge in the United States and in other countries throughout the world, b the judicial office and role, c judicial personalities, d the great common law tradition of judging as practiced here and throughout the world, e judges as judges, f judges as ordinary people with the usual mix of virtues and flaws, etc.|
|Military Daily News, Military Headlines | initiativeblog.com||Hire Writer It is said that only a few of U. The convicts must be nonviolent offenders who arrive at the prison pregnant or with small children already.|
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