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References In this article I provide guidelines for writing in scientific style, starting with the detail of punctuation and working up through to the whole document. The guidelines are based on material presented in the publication manual of the American Psychological Association I indicate departures from APA style in brackets, thus: You can access the APA manual and related material via the links provided by Dewey This article also defines the general style for articles published at the Sportscience website.
Intending contributors should use this article in conjunction with the appropriate template downloaded from the Sportscience site.
Some of the material in the templates is duplicated here. Use a colon to introduce an explanation or an example of something: If there are several simple explanations or examples, separate them with commas; otherwise, use semicolons.
Avoid excessive use of parentheses. Use them to make an aside an extra remark only if commas could be confusing.
Never use parentheses within parentheses: Use brackets [ ] for material inserted into a quotation and ellipsis three dots for material omitted: According to Smith"few such [descriptive] studies were done… before Use one or two spaces after a period, colon, or semicolon.
Note, though, that Web browsers delete more than one space unless you make them non-breaking spaces. Use double quotation marks " for speech and verbatim quotations.
If a quotation is long, type it as an indented block of text without quotation marks, as shown in this example: According to Smith The "newbie effect" disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner.
Examples of methods included indirect observation, self-reports, and retrospective questionnaires. Don't use "smart quotes" 66 and 99because they create problems when translated into Web documents. Use single quotation marks ' for quotes within quotes. Use the apostrophe ' to denote possession: Put commas, semicolons, colons, and periods outside closing quotation marks: Use Title Case initial upper-case letters for words of four or more letters in: If you wrote a clear cut case, you would imply a cut case that was clear.
The emphasis in pronunciation also provides a clue. Hyphenation is not necessary if the first word is an adverb or comparative adjective according to APA, anyway: Avoid italic bold, which does not always show up as bold in some browsers. For example, items on the 5-point scale ranged from not at all to always.
Put the title of a paper, book, or journal in italics in the body of the text. In the reference list, titles of papers are in normal case.
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Put subheadings in Bold Title Case. Do not use italics for foreign words and abbreviations common in scientific English, such as ad lib, per se, et al.
Choose the normal text font to get these symbols: Make a non-breaking space in Word documents with option-spacebar on a Mac, and with control-shift-spacebar in Word on a PC.Essay Organization – Overview. What is an Essay and how should it look? Parts of an Academic Essay. The Introduction.
Background; Thesis; The Body. Paragraphs. Why a Scientific Format? The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities.
One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner.
3. APA Style (American Psychological Association) Using a particular citing/formatting style can simplify the editors’ work because every author adheres to the same format, as well as make it easier for the audience to follow the author’s ideas because they are organized according to a familiar structure.
For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th ed. Warnings. A summary is not a typical type of APA paper. According to the Purdue Online Writing Lab, typical APA papers include literature reviews and experimental reports.
Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
For more information, please consult the Publication .