Child marriage, defined as a formal marriage or informal union before age 18, is a reality for both boys and girls, although girls are disproportionately the most affected. Child marriage is widespread and can lead to a lifetime of disadvantage and deprivation. Worldwide, more than million women alive today were married as children. An estimated 12 million girls under 18 are married each year.
Family background[ edit ] The Tippett family originated in Cornwall. Michael Tippett's grandfather, George Tippett, left the county in to make his fortune in London through property speculation and other business schemes. A flamboyant character, he had a strong tenor voice that was a popular feature at Christian revivalist meetings.
In later life his business enterprises faltered, leading to debts, prosecution for fraud, and a term of imprisonment. His son Henry, born inwas Michael's father.
A lawyer by training, he was successful in business and was independently wealthy by the time of his marriage in April Among her mother's cousins was Charlotte Desparda well-known campaigner for women's rights, suffragismand Irish home rule.
Despard was a powerful influence on the young Isabel, who was herself briefly imprisoned after participating in an illegal suffragette protest in Trafalgar Square.
Although neither she nor Henry was musical, she had inherited an artistic talent from her mother, who had exhibited at the Royal Academy. After their marriage the couple settled outside London in Eastcote where two sons were born, the second, Michael, on 2 January Michael's education began inwith a nursery governess and various private tutors who followed a curriculum that included piano lessons—his first formal contact with music.
He spent four years there, at one point earning notoriety by writing an essay that challenged the existence of God. The school was not a happy place; sadistic bullying of the younger pupils was commonplace.
He transferred to Stamford School in Lincolnshire, where a decade previously Malcolm Sargent had been a pupil. The year-old Michael and his brother Peter remained at school in England, travelling to France for their holidays.
He found an inspiring piano teacher in Frances Tinkler, who introduced him to the music of BachBeethovenSchubert and Chopin. Tippett sang in the chorus when Sargent directed a local performance of Robert Planquette 's operetta Les Cloches de Corneville.
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His overt atheism particularly troubled the school, and he was required to leave. He remained in Stamford in private lodgings, while continuing lessons with Tinkler and with the organist of the local St Mary's Church.
After an interview with the college principal, Sir Hugh AllenTippett was accepted despite his lack of formal entry qualifications.
At the time, his biographer Meirion Bowen records, "his aspirations were Olympian, though his knowledge rudimentary". He heard Chaliapin sing, and attended concerts conducted by, among others, Stravinsky and Ravel —the last-named "a tiny man who stood bolt upright and conducted with what to me looked like a pencil".
When Wood died inTippett chose to study with C. Kitsonwhose pedantic approach and lack of sympathy with Tippett's compositional aims strained the relationship between teacher and pupil.
Although he saw this initially as a means of advancing his knowledge of English madrigalshis association with the choir lasted many years. Under his direction it combined with a local theatrical group, the Oxted and Limpsfield Players, to give performances of Vaughan Williams 's opera The Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains and of Tippett's own adaptation of an 18th-century ballad opera, The Village Opera.
Rather than continuing to study for a doctorate, Tippett decided to leave the academic environment. Also teaching at the school was Christopher Frythe future poet and playwright who later collaborated with Tippett on several of the composer's early works. His compositional output was such that on 5 April he gave a concert in Oxted consisting entirely of his own works—a Concerto in D for flutes, oboe, horns and strings; settings for tenor of poems by Charlotte Mew; Psalm in C for chorus and orchestra, with a text by Christopher Fry; piano variations on the song "Jockey to the Fair"; and a string quartet.
Despite encouraging comments from The Times and the Daily Telegraph, Tippett was deeply dissatisfied with the works, and decided that he needed further tuition. He withdrew the music, and in September re-enrolled at the RCM for a special course of study in counterpoint with R.
Morrisan expert on 16th-century music.
This second RCM period, during which he learned to write fugues in the style of Bach and received additional tuition in orchestration from Gordon Jacob was central to Tippett's eventual discovery of what he termed his "individual voice".Personal Essay about Moving essaysI can still remember that day.
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